eLearning companies that follow the Instructional Design (ID) process, or more specifically the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) process, are in a better position to meet your needs than companies that do not. Although introduced in 1998 by Seels and Glagow*, the ADDIE process (see Figure 1) is still an effective and proven method for the creation of all forms of instruction, whether classroom, eLearning, or blended. Because of ADDIE’s structured, consistent, and systematic approach, instructional design became instructional systems design as ADDIE gained popularity**. The big difference between ID and ISD lies in the attention to the different systems that improve instruction such as message delivery, learner orientation and ability to access content, use of language, text, and symbols, and the integration of evaluation/assessment.
The documentation and final course that result from the ADDIE process provide a foundation by which the vendor and customer can monitor the progress of the project and ensure that milestones are being met.
The ISD process produces several key tracking documents for the project. The tables below identify several key products that guide product development through all phases of the ADDIE process. Figure 2 shows the review and signoffs for the deliverables of only the first three phase of the ADDIE process relative to development of the course.
The Analysis phase is where all of the needs and requirements of the stakeholders including the customer, management, departments, and target training population are identified and defined. This phase involves defining what is to be learned.
Outputs from the Analysis phase
• Needs / tasks analysis
• Learner analysis
• Context / environmental analysis
The Design phase is where the blueprints for the instruction are created. These concept documents will guide the process from start to finish. This phase involves specifying how the instruction is to be learned.
Outputs from the Design phase
• Design specification document
• Style document
• Audio Scripts
• Design templates and prototypes
• Draft supplemental material
• Draft assessment instruments
The Development phase involves the production of the instructional assets or materials. The assets are developed according to the design blueprints and specifications. This phase purpose is to author and produce the materials.
Outputs from the Development phase
» Photos/ graphics
» Multimedia Instruction
• eBooks Supplements
» Job Aids and Performance Support Tools
» Assessment instruments
» Program evaluation instruments
» Project evaluation instruments
The Implementation phase is where the course is released to the intended learners. It is usually the first time that learners engage and apply new competencies to their jobs. This phase is the process of deploying the instruction in a real world context.
Inputs for the Implementation phase
• Completed learner assessments
• Analytics data
• Completed learner feedback forms
The Evaluation phase is where the instruction is reviewed for project and program effectiveness and improvement. This phase purpose is to determine the adequacy of the instruction.
Inputs for the Evaluation phase
• Program Evaluation Report
• Project Evaluation Report
* Frey, B. A., Sutton, J. M. (2010) A Model for Developing Multimedia Learning Projects. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 491-492.
** Allen, L. (2003). Instructional Systems Design (ISD) – The ADDIE Model. Business Performance Pty Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.businessperform.com/workplacetraining/addie_model.html